SKELTON - IN - CLEVELAND
IN HISTORY

1823 ~ 1841


Arms of Wharton family
A sleeve argent maunch

1826 - John Wharton was defeated in the election at Beverley and retired from politics, heavily in debt.

1828 8th March.
SKELTON IN CLEVELAND. TO BE LET, and entered upon at Lady-day and May-day next. A newly-erected and excellent WATER CORN MILL, well supplied by a never-failing stream. The waterwheel is 13 feet 6 inches diameter, and works three pair stones, two French and one grey.

- April, London Gazette.
To be peremptorily sold, pursuant to a Decree of the High Court of Chancery, :made in a cause Wharton v. Wharton, at the Duke of Wellington Inn, held by William Bean, at Skelton in the North Riding of the County of York, on Friday the 2nd day of May next, at Two o'Clock in the Afternoon, in 14 lots ; Very valuable ship timber, consisting of 4305 oak and 553 ash and elm trees, with the bark and tops thereof, standing and growing in the Townships of Skelton and Kilton; in the North Riding of the County of York. Particulars may be had (gratis) of ....Mr Henry Clarke, Solicitor, Guisborough; at the Black Lion, Stockton ; the Angel Inn, Whitby, and Blue. Bell, Scarborough. ; and also of Robert Bell, William Lockwood and William Bean, of Skelton, either of whom will shew the timber at any time previous to the sale.


William IV, 1830-37.

1830 26th June - WILLIAM IV - Death of George IV. He was almost blind, enormously obese and pained by gout, after a dissolute lifestyle that included huge banquets and copious amounts of alcohol.
He was succeeded by his brother, William IV, nicknamed the 'Sailor King' after his service in the Royal Navy.

16th September - WOOL AND COTTON NICKERS.
A charge was brought against Stephen Reynolds, labourer, and William Barker, labourer, both late of the House of Correction at Northallerton, for stealing 21 yards of cotton cord value 30s, 24 yards of blue coloured woollen cloth value 3, 15 yards of dark drab coloured woollen cloth value 3, four yards of black coloured woollen cloth value 15s, four yards of olive coloured woollen cloth value 10s, two yards of drab coloured woollen cloth value 6s,

16 yards of kerseymere woollen cloth value 4, two yards of fustian cloth value 5s, and four yards of woollen cloth cord value 12s, the property of Benjamin Robinson; and 21 yards of cotton cord value 30s, 24 yards of blue coloured woollen cloth value 3, 15 yards of dark drab coloured woollen cloth value 3, four yards of black coloured woollen cloth value 15s, four yards of olive coloured woollen cloth value 10s, two yards of drab coloured woollen cloth value 6s, 16 yards of kerseymere woollen cloth value 4, two yards of fustian cloth value 5s, and four yards of woollen cloth cord value 12s, the property of Isaac Robinson in the Parish of Skelton.

6th October - FEMALE JAILBIRDS CAGED FOR PECKS OF CORN.
Hannah Bradley, singlewoman, and Jane Mark, singlewoman, both late of the House of Correction at Northallerton, were charged with stealing three pecks of wheat, value 3s, the property of John Farndale in the Parish of Skelton.

1831 December. - CENSUS TAKEN FOR TEN SHILLINGS.
The accounts of the Skelton Overseers of the Poor:-
Paid for 2 men, 2 days each, taking the Population of Skelton by Order of the Magistrates and allowed by the General Quarter Sessions - 10 shillings.

NATIONAL CENSUS - The population of Skelton was 781.
In the last 30 years an increase of 81. The national population about 14 million.
The number of Females in Skelton was 396. Males numbered 385. Of these 138 were over 20.
An entry in the Parish Register for this year gives 174 Families living in 172 Inhabited houses with 12 uninhabited. There was no current house building.
This record further divided these families into 100 employed in Agriculture, 42 in Trade/Manufacture and 24 Others.
"Agriculture occupiers 1st Class 39, 2nd Class 73 and Labourers 26", [although these figures do not seem to tally with the above.]
Manufacturers - None.
Retail trades and Handicraft - 43.
Wholesale and Capitalists, Clergy, Office Clerks, Professional and other Educated Men - 1 [presumably the Vicar].
Labourers non Agriculture - 15.
All other males over 20 - 1.
Male servants 20 and over - 18.
Male servants under 20 - 10.
Female servants - 22.
Signed by Codrington Kilburn, Overseer and John Sharpe, Assistant.

1832 - The Reform Act of this year extended the right to vote slightly and altered constituencies.
Up to this time only only about 3 percent of householders qualified to vote, based on land ownership.
The new rules were still based on wealth and now about 5 percent had the vote.
Skelton was part of the North Riding of Yorkshire and there were only 4 representatives for the whole County. [Up to 1821 this had been only 2.]

1833 - PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS - SKELTON PARISH EDUCATION RETURNS.
Township of "MOORSHAM, GREAT". Population 338.
One Daily School, wherein 30 to 40 children of both sexes receive instruction at the expense of their parents.
One Sunday School, in which 50 children of both sexes are taught for free.
The above Schools commenced in 1832.
It is stated that "not above one third of children in this township and the township of Stanghow, [population 122] are sent to School"

SKELTON Township. Population 781.
5 Daily Schools, containing 52 males and 70 females. One of these schools is endowed with a house, garden and orchard, for which, with the aid of the Parish, 10 males are taught for free.
With this exception all the children are instructed at the expense of their parents.
2 Sunday Schools, in one whereof [commenced in 1929], are 26 females and in the other 31 males. The former School is supported by a salary from a private individual and in the latter the instruction if for free. Both are supplied with books by the Minister.

1834 - THE START OF THE WORKHOUSE.
The Poor Law Amendment Act removed the administration of the Poor Law from the Parish and established the Poor Law Guardians, who were representatives of many Parishes and combined to form a Poor Law Union.
Skelton combined with 26 other parishes:-
Brotton, Common Dale, Danby, Easington, Eston, Guisborough, Hutton Locras, Kilton, Kirkleatham, Liverton, Lofthouse [Loftus], Marsk, Great Moorsham, Morton, Newton, Normanby, Ormesby (part of), Pinchingthorpe, Redcar, Skinningrove, Stranghow, Tocketts, Upleatham, Upsall, Westerdale, Wilton.
At the 1831 census the total population of all these Parishes was 11,038.
A Work-house was authorised in Northgate, Guisborough and was opened in 1838. Paupers, who could not maintain themselves were sent there and hard work was found for the able bodied.
Before the rise in population due to the opening of local ironstone mines the average number of inmates was only around 30.
Vagrants were given tickets for beds at local lodging houses, or money to buy food.

PIGOT'S DIRECTORY of this year lists people in "Professions and Trades" in Skelton as:-
Nobility, Gentry and Clergy - Close Rev. William, Hixon Mr. John Ellerby [attorney], Wharton John esq, Castle.
Academies and Schools - Adamson Catherine [Boarding], Adamson James, Sharp John.
Blacksmiths - Carter Thomas, Kilburn William, Robinson Robert, Young William.
Boot and Shoe Makers - Bell Robert, Bunting Thomas, Hatherton John, Johnson John, John Lewis, Thomas Low.
Butchers - Wilkinson William and Son.

Grocers and Drapers - Dixon William [and druggist], Macnaughten Duncan, Shemelds Thomas and Son.
Inns and Public Houses - Duke, Joseph Biggins, Royal George, William Lawson, Wharton's Arms, Robert Bell.
Joiners, Cabinet Makers and Cartwrights - Carrick Mark, Dixon Leonard.
Plumbers and Glaziers - Gowland William.
Shopkeepers and Dealers in Groceries and Sundries - Harforth William, Robinson Benjamin, Robinson John, Wilkinson Elizabeth, Wilson Christopher.
Stonemasons - Ridsdale John, Wilkinson George.
Tailors - Lynass Ralph, Shemelds Thomas and Son, Thompson Joseph.
Linen weaver - Thomas Dawson.
Retailer of Beer - Christopher Wilson.

Local Boundaries 1832
1835 - The burial of John Andrew in the South corner of Skelton Old Church yard. He was a Scot, having been born in 1757 at Inverberbie, Kincardine. In 1778 he attained the degree of Master Mason of Kilwinnie Lodge, Montrose, [North Britain No. 18.]
He must have arrived at Saltburn, North Yorkshire, shortly afterwards for in 1780 he married Anne Harrison at All Saints Church, Skelton-in-Cleveland. Saltburn at this time was in the chapelry of Brotton, which in turn was part of the Skelton Parish. He became the landlord of the Ship Inn, Saltburn. During the French Wars many imports had heavy duties imposed on them and it became very profitable to avoid them. John Andrew became notorious in this area as the 'king of smugglers'.
Thomas King, a Brewer, of Kirkleatham, who later married one of John Andrews daughters, Elizabeth, was a partner. Together they bought a lugger named the "Morgan Rattler" to cut out the middle men and prospered. When word went round that "John Andrew's cow has calved" clients knew that another cargo had been landed.
At the same time he was serving in the local Volunteers. 24th October, 1804 he was
commissioned in the Cleveland Volunteer Infantry. In 1807 he was made Lieutenant. In 1808 he was made Lt. in the 3rd Regiment of Local Malitia. 16th May, 1809 he was promoted Captain in the same regiment. The order each time was signed by the Duke of Leeds.
It is reputed at one time during his smuggling activities they were surprised by the Excise men in the Blackhall Rocks area.
John made his escape on horseback and rode to tees-mouth where he roused a fisherman and offered him a guinea to be taken across the river.
Landing on the Majuba sands he approached a coastguard man and asked the time. then made his way home.
Later he was arrested and appeared before a court on a charge of smuggling, he called the coastguard as a witness and it was decided he could not have been at the scene at the time and also south of the river a short time later.
The only crossing over the Tees at this time was at Yarm so a ride of a considerable distance.


He used his smuggling gains to join the landed gentry by buying the White House Farm at Saltburn.
"Saltburn was then but a fishing hamlet and colony of smugglers on the seashore. Not the large and fashionable watering place it has since developed into. On the top of the cliffs, with a wooded ravine running inland, stood then and still stands the home of the Andrew family, a farmhouse known as the White House. Up this secluded ravine many a string of pack horses wended their way with the contraband goods, which found a ready market at Guisborough, Stokesley and in the country-side. This illicit trade being encouraged both by the gentry and clergy as well as by the farmers...... Many a cargo was run ashore at Saltburn and stored in the White House, and in the clay holes of Hob Hill, in the ravine beyond the house. You may now see in the last stall of the stables a large flagstone, which when removed, discloses the entrance to a spacious cellar. In this stall John Andrew had always a celebrated mare who would kick like mad when any but her master approached that stall. Upstairs in the house is a room which had a secret hiding place, where in case of a search the men might hide or lie in ambuscade."
From the "The Cleveland Hunt" by A E Pease.
In 1817, at a meeting in the Angel Inn, Loftus John Andrew Snr was elected as the first Master of Foxhounds by the newly formed Hunt.
It has long been believed that, after a lifetime of dodging the excise men, he was eventually caught in 1827 at Hornsea off-loading an illicit cargo.
But, as Alan Ward of Saltburn points out, John would have been 70 by this time and it was, in fact, his son, also called John [1794 to 1855] who was nabbed in the act.
Alan is a direct descendant of John Andrew and has provided the bulk of this information.
John Andrew, Junior must have carried on the family "trade". Three items, found by Alan, confirm this. The first is a letter from the Customs House, London, dated 20 Jan 1825 asking the Customs Collector to enquire into the ability of two men to meet the bail amount of 95 for John Andrew.
The second is a letter asking the Collector to take the necessary measures for the release of John Andrew, "JUNIOR" from York Castle.
[Alan obtained this information from a report in the Cleveland Family History journal by a John Warwick Andrew, b 1925, of Oxford, who did the original research.]
The third is an article in the Northern Echo, dated 28 Nov 1935 dealing with "Sir Alfred Pease's Memories of Saltburn":-
There were three Andrews of successive generations, who were Masters of the Cleveland Hounds.
They lived at White House.
I began hunting with the last of them, Tom about 1865. He died in 1870. His brother George at the White House until he died in the 1880's. I knew him well.
[George died 7 April 1891, he was shown resident at Glenhow Saltburn 1891census, 5 April.) altho. burial register All Saint's Skelton show abode as White House.] John Andrew, JUNIOR had the bad luck to be caught running a cargo ashore at Hornsea and was fined an enormous sum of 100.000, I believe about 1827, and, of course, unable to pay a fraction of the fine, was imprisoned in York castle.
After two years of durance there, Henry Vansittart, of Kirkleatham, who had carried on the hounds during John's absence, was able to secure his release through the influence of his relative Lord Bexley, who was in the goverment.
In those days the discipline for debt was not strict, and Tom Parrington told me that John Andrew carried on his smuggling by correspondence through agents all the time he was a prisoner.


5th October 1835. Auction of Priestcrofts Farm.

From his release until his father died in 1835, he seemed to have been reduced to poverty, for he lived in a small cottage at Boosbeck and only had a grey pony. 15 h.h. on which he hunted hounds twice a week.
The pony was "as hard as iron" but had a temper and would always run away with his master and was not particular as to the direction in which he bolted.
It was not uncommon to see the gallant grey tearing across country in quite another direction to that which the hounds were running.The pony never got a summer rest for then his owner yoked him to a cart and he carted stones, seaweed, or anything else at a job which earned John a few shillings.
After his father's death, Andrews was master of the hounds, and his circumstances improved a little as the hunt paid him a small salary.

Offenders from this area were sent to the House of Correction at the County headquarters, Northallerton. This year saw the imposition of a new system of correction. Silence. No communication or conversation was to be allowed. People who committed serious crimes in this area were sent to the York Assizes for Trial.
To see typical case histories and sentencing of this time - Click here.

1836 - 15ft SNOWDRIFTS. - Christmas and Boxing Day saw a great snowstorm from the ENE which saw drifts up to 15ft deep in parts and caused loss of life.

1837 - Death of William IV and accession of Victoria.
1st July - For civil registration purposes Skelton is made a sub district of Guisborough and remained so until 31st March 1930. Othersub districts were "Danby, Guisborough, Kirk Leatham, Lofthouse and Marske." These districts were used to compile the census returns of 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1901.

One of the longest cold periods, beginning January, with temperatures down to -20 at Greenwich, and lasting some 7 to 8 weeks.

1838 - THE WORKHOUSE BUILT - Building of Guisborough Workhouse at the corner of Northgate and Church Lane to house up to 130 poor, who could not provide for themselves.


Watercolour of Skelton Cross Green.
The dress of the gentleman with the stock pens would indicate a date some time in the earlier part of the 19th Century. But he could be an invention of the artist to depict earlier times, as the gentleman standing in the road looks distinctly later.
It is believed, by the paintings owner, to have been the work of a lady called Tiplady. This surname appears several times in Skelton's History of this period. See list of Farmers below.
The Green, had long been used for pasture and as a market. It still had stock-pens on photographs much later in the 1800's
The Royal George, with the sign and cart outside, later had a third storey added in red-brick and bay-windows.
The white railings below the Inn still exist.
The house below the Royal George was a fish shop in the 1940's and probably for some time before.
John Dobson lived there as a young boy and remembers a floor of sandstone flags.
As he points out, this cottage is number 8. Therefore there must have been others running down to the Parsonage.
Perhaps the bottom three and the Parsonage are out of view in the painting.
Probably one was a shop as a sign can be seen at the end of the row.
Today only 7 and 8 North Terrace exist.
Skelton Castle Estate built an Estate Office in 1890 and these lower cottages were presumably demolished, as John points out, to make way for it.
[The painting is owned by Allan Seaton, now of Congleton, Cheshire. He kindly loaned it to be photographed.
His family lived at various addresses on Boosbeck Rd, Skelton Green and his wife Pamela was fostered by a family called Gill of New Brook Farm, Skelton Green. The work shows a certain expertise beyond the talents of the average local amateur and may well have been created by the Rev Crawford Townsend Bowen, who married into the family. See Forbidden Love Story on the page for 1859.
[Permission to copy this photograph should be sought via this website.]

1839 17th July. - SKELTON MILLER DEFLOURED - Anderson Lodge, aged 27, late of Guisborough, was found guilty of obtaining 20 by false pretences with intent to cheat and defraud Nathaniel Stonehouse, Miller of Skelton in Cleveland. Sentenced to 3 months hard labour in Northallerton Gaol.

REPORTS OF THE COMMISSIONERS -
CHARITIES AND EDUCATION OF THE POOR IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 1815 TO 1839.

SKELTON SCHOOL. MAWER'S BEQUEST
See Mawers Will of 1755 to provide free schooling for the Poor.

The legal estate in the premises is now vested in Robert Thompson, son and heir of William Thompson, who survived the other Trustees named in the deed.
The house and garth are occupied by a Master, appointed by the Trustees 40 years ago, who, at first, was required to teach 2 poor children gratis, and allowed to take others, as pay scholars;
but, about 8 years ago, a new school room was built by the inhabitants, at the expense of near 100 and in consideration of the additional accommodation thus afforded to the the Master the number of free scholars has been increased to 10, and the Master has besides about 30 pay scholars.
Some inconvenience has been found to arise, from the right of nominating the free scholars being confided to the Trustees named in the deed of 1774.
It has been proposed, in order to prevent the expense of frequent renewals of the Trust Deed, and the inconvenience resulting from the power of nomination being vested in a set of Trustees gradually decreasing in number , the right of nomination should henceforth, with the consent of the inhabitants, be lodged in the Minister and Parish Officers, for the time being.
That a provision to such effect should be made in a new Trust Deed, now about to be prepared.


CARRICK'S DOLE.
The sum of 16s 8d a year is received, to the use of the Poor of this Parish, from a family named Carrick.
The money has been long paid by that family, and is supposed to be the interest of 2 sums of 10s and 15s mentioned in the returns to Parliament in 1786, as the gifts of Margarte Mawer and Elizabeth Hindson.
The money is paid to the Churchwardens half yearly, in May and November, and they distrubute the amount, at their discrection, among the poor persons of the township, Widows are preferred.

CONN'S AND COLLIN'S DOLES.
There ae two ancient annual payments of rent charges of 1 6s 8d and 6s.
The first payable out of land in the township of Upleatham the property of Thomas Conn.
The other out of a farm at Skelton, belonging to Robert Collins esq, of Kusworth, Darlington.
The Parish is not possessed of any document relating to either of these payments, which now pass by the names of the several owners of the estates or lands subject to them.
But the sums are mentioned in the returns of charitable donations in 1786, as the gifts of the Honourable Catherine Atherton, Grace Bowsman, and a person unknown.
Both payments are regularly made to the Churchwardens, who distribute the amount, together with, and in the same manner as the preceeding charity.

HUTTON'S DOLE.
This is a sum of 1 10s a year, paid in respect of a parcel of land at "Beersbeck", in this Parish, the property of William Hutton.
The money is stated to have been originally paid out of a farm called Roakley, belonging to William Thompson.
It is mentioned in the returns of 1786 by the name of Barwick's Charity.
By a Deed, which we shall afterwards notice, it appears that the charity given by Barwick orininally consisted of a sum of 50 shillings, one moiety of which was laid out by the Parish in land for the benefit of certain other townships in Skelton, and the other moiety, it is supposed, was invested in the purchase of the above rent charge, for the poor of this township.
The money is paid to the Overseers and distributed at Candlemas by them and the inhabitants in Vestry, amongst the most necessitous and deserving poor of the township.

LING'S DOLE.
The sum of 30 shillings a year, supposed to be left by a person named as above is paid out of a house and garth of about two acres, belonging to Christopher Swales, situate in the township of Stanghow, to which 10s of the payment belongs.
The 20s due to the twonship of Skelton is applied half to the relief of the poor and half to the repairs of Church and is added to the income from the Church Rates.

THE POOR COTTAGES.
There were 3 cottages in the town of Skelton, supposed to be given for the habitation of poor people, 2 of which became dilapidated and have fallen down and the other in in a ruinous condition.
They have long been used as residences for Parish paupers, which is not according to the intention of the donor, as expressed in the returns, but the Parish has heretofore been at the charge of repairing them and is about to incur the expense of rebuilding the whole.

1840 - 10th January. The Penny post was introduced.
Now anyone could send a letter weighing not more than half an ounce anywhere in Britain for the cost of a one penny adhesive stamp.
Previous to this the cost was paid by the recipient of the letter based on weight and distance and the cost could prove too expensive for the ordinary man.

White's Directory records Skelton as 'including the hamlet of Manless Green'.

The schoolmaster is teaching 10 'free' scholars.
The poor of Skelton benefitted from the following charities -
0 16s 8d left by a person called Carrick
1 12s 8d left by Thomas Conn and Robert Collins.
1 10s left by William Hutton. [see 1801]
1 10s left by William Hutton. [see 1801]
1 10s left by a person called Ling.
10 left by Medd Scarth [see 1818].
Letters arrive at 8.30am and the post returns at 4 pm.
A coach goes to Whitby and Middlesbrough three days a week,
Persons recorded are -
Castle - John Wharton.
Curate - Rev W Close,
Farrier - Barker Joseph.
Victuallers - Joseph Biggin at Duke of York [presumably Duke William], Jane Lawson at the Royal George.
Robert Bell at the Whartons Arms [also listed as a wood agent.] Gamekeeper - Frank Thomas.
Plumber and Glazier - William Gowland, James Gowland.
Butcher - Lawson Andrew.
Saddler - Patterson Thomas.
Schoolmaster - Joseph Sharp.

Half Farthing
One quarter of a penny, or a "four-thing"
240 pence = 1 Pound
960 Farthings = 1 Pound

Corn Miller - Nathaniel Stonehouse.
Surgeon - Hinderwell Thompson.
Blacksmiths - William Carter, John Kilburn, Thomas Robinson, John Young.
Boot and shoemakers - John Lewis, Thomas Lewis.
Farmers - Mrs Abelson, John Andrew, John Cass, John Cole, Thomas Coverdale, E Dale, Thomas Dixon, Stephen Emmerson, C Kilburn, Thomas Leng, Ruth Lockwood, John Lynas, Robert Marlow, Michael Miller, Thomas Moon, William Morris, Edward Patterson, David Petch, John Roper, Thomas Rickaby, John Sanderson, Robert Suggitt, Joseph Tate, James Taylor, Hannah Thompson, John Thompson, Robert Tiplady, John Wood, Robert Wilkinson, William Young.
Grocers - Thomas Carter, William Dixon, Benjamin Robinson, Thomas Taylor, Hannah Wilkinson, Matthew Young.
Tailors - Ralph Lynas, Benjamin Robinson, Thomas Taylor, Joseph Thompson.
Wheelwrights - Mark Carrick, Leonard Dixon, James Wood.

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